Adobo or Adobar is the immersion of raw food in a stock (or sauce) composed variously of paprika, oregano, salt, garlic, and vinegar to preserve and enhance its flavor. The spices and primary ingredients added differ depending on country (Wikipedia, nd).
Adobo sauce includes a number of ingredients depending on the recipe used, so whenever consuming something that contains the sauce, thoroughly check the ingredients. Common ingredients include, but are not limited to, vinegar, sugar, garlic, chiles, and cumin.
Adobo sauce is used primarily as a method of flavoring foods before cooking. Traditional preparations were created with the intent of flavoring, such as berenjenas de Almagro (Almagro eggplant), and lomo en adobo (tenderloin of beef or pork in adobo) (Wikipedia, nd).
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Here is a simple adobo sauce recipe.